星期三,四月, 18, 2007

Argument Structure
The assignment of thematic roles to the constituents (noun-phrases, prepositional phrases, even clauses) that represent the participants in actions, states, and events creates arguments. Some of these arguments are obligatory, depending on the meaning of the verb. Argument structure is what determines whether a verb will have one, two or three obligatory arguments. Thus, “sleep” will have only one, a sleeper. “Break” will have two, a breaker and something broken. “Give” will have three, a giver, a gift, and a receiver. Unlike phrase structure, argument structure does not assign either linear ordering or hierarchical relationships to its components; argument structure has to be mapped onto phrase structure in order to provide these.

Thematic Role
In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. The term thematic role denotes the same concept. As such it is a semantic rather than a syntactic feature, in contrast to such notions as the subject of a sentence or a prepositional object.
For instance, in the sentence Debra broke the window, “Debra” is both the subject of the sentence and the agent and “the window” is the object of the verb and the patient. But in The window was broken by Debra, “Debra” is still the agent, even though “the window” is now the subject of the sentence.

In morphology, a lemma is the canonical form of a lexeme. Lexeme, in this context, refers to the set of all the forms that have the same meaning, and lemma refers to the particular form that is chosen by convention to represent the lexeme. Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Czech. In this sense, a lemma can also be called a citation form.
In psycholinguistics, the terms lemma has a more restricted use: it is an abstract form of a word that is used in speech production. In the best accepted psycholinguistic models, speech production has several stages, and the lemma occurs after the word has been selected mentally, but before any information has been accessed about the sounds in it (and thus before the word can be pronounced). It therefore contains information concerning only meaning and the relation of this word to others in the sentence.



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