Archive for the ‘notes’ Category


Memory and Language

星期二,五月, 8, 2007

Peter C. Gordon

Language Comprehension based on
– memory
  * discourse accessibility

* similarity-based interference
eg: The teacher said that Jonh cheated in the exam.
      (descriptive)             (name)
  John said that the student cheated in the exam.
  (name)              (descriptive)
  The teacher said that the student cheated in the exam.
  John said that Bill cheated in the exam.

→ similar NPs resulted in more RT
→ disimilar NPs resulted in less RT.

– information structure

  • topicality of NPs – Alignment with syntactic postions
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    星期三,四月, 18, 2007

    Argument Structure
    The assignment of thematic roles to the constituents (noun-phrases, prepositional phrases, even clauses) that represent the participants in actions, states, and events creates arguments. Some of these arguments are obligatory, depending on the meaning of the verb. Argument structure is what determines whether a verb will have one, two or three obligatory arguments. Thus, “sleep” will have only one, a sleeper. “Break” will have two, a breaker and something broken. “Give” will have three, a giver, a gift, and a receiver. Unlike phrase structure, argument structure does not assign either linear ordering or hierarchical relationships to its components; argument structure has to be mapped onto phrase structure in order to provide these.

    Thematic Role
    In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. The term thematic role denotes the same concept. As such it is a semantic rather than a syntactic feature, in contrast to such notions as the subject of a sentence or a prepositional object.
    For instance, in the sentence Debra broke the window, “Debra” is both the subject of the sentence and the agent and “the window” is the object of the verb and the patient. But in The window was broken by Debra, “Debra” is still the agent, even though “the window” is now the subject of the sentence.

    In morphology, a lemma is the canonical form of a lexeme. Lexeme, in this context, refers to the set of all the forms that have the same meaning, and lemma refers to the particular form that is chosen by convention to represent the lexeme. Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Czech. In this sense, a lemma can also be called a citation form.
    In psycholinguistics, the terms lemma has a more restricted use: it is an abstract form of a word that is used in speech production. In the best accepted psycholinguistic models, speech production has several stages, and the lemma occurs after the word has been selected mentally, but before any information has been accessed about the sounds in it (and thus before the word can be pronounced). It therefore contains information concerning only meaning and the relation of this word to others in the sentence.


    Psy. of Language-Chapter1

    星期二,四月, 3, 2007

    tacit vs. explicit knowledge
    Tacit Knowledge: how to perform various acts
    Explicit Knowledge: the processes or mechanisms used in these acts

    Semantics– meanings of sentences and words
    Syntax– the grammatical arrangement of words within the sentence
    Phonology– system of sounds in a language
    Pragmatics– the social rules involved in language use

    Garden Path Sentences
    (women and girls are more likely to use indirect speech than are men and boys)

    function words(prepositions, conjunctions,etc.) vs. content words(nouns, verbs, adjectives)

    eye-voice span
    semantic differential

    poverty of stimulus argument(Chomsky)
    not enough information in the language samples given to children to fully account for the richness and complexity of children’s language.
    –> the language children acquire is intricate and subtle, and the sample of speech given to them during the course of language development is anything but.
    Therefore, although parents may assist the child’s language development in some ways and influence the rate of development somewhat, the pattern of development is based not on parental speech but on innate language knowledge.

    lexicon, mental dictionary


    Emic & Etic

    星期一,八月, 7, 2006

    人类学研究中对于文化表现的不同理解角度。主位(Emic)、客位(Etic)这两个术语是肯尼思.派克(Kenneth Pike)在1954年从语言学的术语音位的(phonemic)和语音的(phonetic)类推出来的。




    Thomas Bvarfield (ed.), The Dictionary of Anthropology, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1997.



    星期二,七月, 25, 2006

    brain structure

    meninges – 脑膜
    lateral ventricle – 侧脑室
    corpus callosum – 胼胝体
    diencephalon – 间脑
    thalamus – 丘脑
    diencephalon – 下丘脑
    pituitary gland – 脑下垂体/垂体腺
    brain stem – 脑干
    midbrain – 中脑
    pons – 脑桥
    medulla oblongata – 延髓
    vertebra – 脊椎
    spinal cord – 脊髓
    fourth ventricle – 第四脑室
    cerebellum – 小脑

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    星期二,七月, 25, 2006

    わずらわしい  [煩わしい]  – 麻烦, 繁琐.

    うるさい  [煩い] – 吵, 闹, 喧哗

    あきる  [飽きる·厭きる]  – 厌烦, 腻味 
    あきっぽい  [飽きっぽい]  – 三分钟热度
    わすれっぽい  [忘れっぽい] – 健忘症

    ころしてやる  [殺してやる] – 宰了你

    ひんにゅう  [貧乳] - 平胸
    きょにゅう  [巨乳] - 平胸
    むねがべちゃんこ  [胸がべちゃこ] - 平胸

    もったいない – 可惜

    ふりょう  [不良] – (学生中)小混混
    やくざ(や-さん) – 流氓

    もういい – 不用, 算了, 够了

    あちいけ (あちいって) – 边儿去  


    the autonomic nervous system

    星期一,七月, 24, 2006


    the autonomic nervous system  自主神经(内脏神经) 

    左侧-Parasympathetic Division – 复交感神经
    ganglion (cell) – 神经节细胞
    medulla oblongata – 延髓
    bronchi – bronchus的复数, 气管
    peristalsis and secrecion – 蠕动与分泌
    bile – 胆汁
    bladder – 膀胱

    右侧-Sympathetic Division – 交感神经
    glycogen – 糖原
    glucose – 葡萄糖
    adrenalin – 肾上腺素
    noradrenaline – 去甲肾上腺素