Archive for the ‘notes’ Category

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Memory and Language

星期二,五月, 8, 2007

Peter C. Gordon

Language Comprehension based on
– memory
  * discourse accessibility

* similarity-based interference
eg: The teacher said that Jonh cheated in the exam.
      (descriptive)             (name)
  John said that the student cheated in the exam.
  (name)              (descriptive)
                                                  vs.
  The teacher said that the student cheated in the exam.
  John said that Bill cheated in the exam.

→ similar NPs resulted in more RT
→ disimilar NPs resulted in less RT.

– information structure

  • topicality of NPs – Alignment with syntactic postions
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    Verb-argument-structure

    星期三,四月, 18, 2007

    Argument Structure
    The assignment of thematic roles to the constituents (noun-phrases, prepositional phrases, even clauses) that represent the participants in actions, states, and events creates arguments. Some of these arguments are obligatory, depending on the meaning of the verb. Argument structure is what determines whether a verb will have one, two or three obligatory arguments. Thus, “sleep” will have only one, a sleeper. “Break” will have two, a breaker and something broken. “Give” will have three, a giver, a gift, and a receiver. Unlike phrase structure, argument structure does not assign either linear ordering or hierarchical relationships to its components; argument structure has to be mapped onto phrase structure in order to provide these.

    Thematic Role
    In linguistics, a theta role or θ-role is the semantic role a noun phrase plays in a sentence. The term thematic role denotes the same concept. As such it is a semantic rather than a syntactic feature, in contrast to such notions as the subject of a sentence or a prepositional object.
    For instance, in the sentence Debra broke the window, “Debra” is both the subject of the sentence and the agent and “the window” is the object of the verb and the patient. But in The window was broken by Debra, “Debra” is still the agent, even though “the window” is now the subject of the sentence.

    Lemma
    In morphology, a lemma is the canonical form of a lexeme. Lexeme, in this context, refers to the set of all the forms that have the same meaning, and lemma refers to the particular form that is chosen by convention to represent the lexeme. Lemmas have special significance in highly inflected languages such as Czech. In this sense, a lemma can also be called a citation form.
    In psycholinguistics, the terms lemma has a more restricted use: it is an abstract form of a word that is used in speech production. In the best accepted psycholinguistic models, speech production has several stages, and the lemma occurs after the word has been selected mentally, but before any information has been accessed about the sounds in it (and thus before the word can be pronounced). It therefore contains information concerning only meaning and the relation of this word to others in the sentence.

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    Psy. of Language-Chapter1

    星期二,四月, 3, 2007

    tacit vs. explicit knowledge
    Tacit Knowledge: how to perform various acts
    Explicit Knowledge: the processes or mechanisms used in these acts

    Semantics– meanings of sentences and words
    Syntax– the grammatical arrangement of words within the sentence
    Phonology– system of sounds in a language
    Pragmatics– the social rules involved in language use

    Garden Path Sentences
    花园小径句就是那些实际解释不同于我们一开始所想结构的句子
    (women and girls are more likely to use indirect speech than are men and boys)

    function words(prepositions, conjunctions,etc.) vs. content words(nouns, verbs, adjectives)

    eye-voice span
    semantic differential

    poverty of stimulus argument(Chomsky)
    not enough information in the language samples given to children to fully account for the richness and complexity of children’s language.
    –> the language children acquire is intricate and subtle, and the sample of speech given to them during the course of language development is anything but.
    Therefore, although parents may assist the child’s language development in some ways and influence the rate of development somewhat, the pattern of development is based not on parental speech but on innate language knowledge.

    lexicon, mental dictionary

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    Emic & Etic

    星期一,八月, 7, 2006

    人类学研究中对于文化表现的不同理解角度。主位(Emic)、客位(Etic)这两个术语是肯尼思.派克(Kenneth Pike)在1954年从语言学的术语音位的(phonemic)和语音的(phonetic)类推出来的。

    主位研究是指研究者不凭自己的主观认识,尽可能的从当地人的视角去理解文化,通过听取当地提供情况的人即报道人所反映的当地人对事物的认识和观点进行整理和分析的研究方法。主位研究将报道人放在更重要的位置,把他的描述和分析作为最终的判断。同时,主位研究要求研究者对研究对象有深入的了解,熟悉他们的知识体系、分类系统,明了他们的概念、话语及意义,通过深入的参与观察,尽量像本地人那样去思考和行动。

    客位研究是研究者以文化外来观察者的角度来理解文化,以科学家的标准对其行为的原因和结果进行解释,用比较的和历史的观点看待民族志提供的材料。这样在研究理论和方法上,要求研究者具有较为系统的知识,并能够联系研究对象实际材料进行应用。

    主位研究在现代文化人类学中得到日益广泛的重视,人类学家在田野工作和民族志写作过程中都注意本位术语和观念的应用。这种方法的优点是能够详尽的描述文化的各个环节,克服由于观察者的文化差异造成的理解偏差,但是这种研究角度也有一些缺点,即由于当地人在自身的文化当中可能会将许多的行为和思想视为当然的和平常的。而在客位研究中,研究者通过对所搜集的材料的解释,研究者可以认识和解释那些本土文化中生活的人们在自身文化中可能视为当然的和平常的许多的行为和思想,缺点是不能详尽的描述文化的各个环节,观察者会因为文化的差异、文化假设上的偏差而产生可能错误的认识。

    参考文献:
    吴泽霖主编,《人类学词典》,上海辞书出版社,1990年。
    Thomas Bvarfield (ed.), The Dictionary of Anthropology, Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 1997.

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    brain

    星期二,七月, 25, 2006

    brain structure

    meninges – 脑膜
    lateral ventricle – 侧脑室
    corpus callosum – 胼胝体
    diencephalon – 间脑
    thalamus – 丘脑
    diencephalon – 下丘脑
    pituitary gland – 脑下垂体/垂体腺
    brain stem – 脑干
    midbrain – 中脑
    pons – 脑桥
    medulla oblongata – 延髓
    vertebra – 脊椎
    spinal cord – 脊髓
    fourth ventricle – 第四脑室
    cerebellum – 小脑

    Read the rest of this entry ?

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    少しずつ

    星期二,七月, 25, 2006

    わずらわしい  [煩わしい]  – 麻烦, 繁琐.

    うるさい  [煩い] – 吵, 闹, 喧哗

    あきる  [飽きる·厭きる]  – 厌烦, 腻味 
    あきっぽい  [飽きっぽい]  – 三分钟热度
    わすれっぽい  [忘れっぽい] – 健忘症

    ころしてやる  [殺してやる] – 宰了你

    ひんにゅう  [貧乳] - 平胸
    きょにゅう  [巨乳] - 平胸
    むねがべちゃんこ  [胸がべちゃこ] - 平胸

    もったいない – 可惜

    ふりょう  [不良] – (学生中)小混混
    やくざ(や-さん) – 流氓

    もういい – 不用, 算了, 够了

    あちいけ (あちいって) – 边儿去  

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    the autonomic nervous system

    星期一,七月, 24, 2006

    autonomic

    the autonomic nervous system  自主神经(内脏神经) 

    左侧-Parasympathetic Division – 复交感神经
    ganglion (cell) – 神经节细胞
    medulla oblongata – 延髓
    bronchi – bronchus的复数, 气管
    peristalsis and secrecion – 蠕动与分泌
    bile – 胆汁
    bladder – 膀胱

    右侧-Sympathetic Division – 交感神经
    glycogen – 糖原
    glucose – 葡萄糖
    adrenalin – 肾上腺素
    noradrenaline – 去甲肾上腺素